Lighting of sports facilities

Each of us, one way or another, is familiar with sports. As children, we work out in gyms and on school playgrounds, later we visit fitness centers, follow live sports competitions in large sports complexes, come to cheer for our favorite team in huge stadiums. And for professional athletes, being at the stadium or in the gym becomes a part of life.

An important condition for ensuring quality sports is lighting. Dim or, for example, too bright light directly affects the well-being of the athlete. Multiple, scattered shadows, low color rendering index of light reduce concentration and performance, quickly tire the eyes. A powerful, bright light should be installed in such a way as not to disturb the coordination of the athlete’s movements. Therefore, professionally organized lighting that complies with all norms and rules helps to achieve success in sports. The correct level of lighting is equally important for players, spectators, referees and juries. And for reporting, broadcasting and video filming of sporting events, even more stringent lighting requirements are set.

The main purpose of lighting sports facilities is  to create comfortable conditions for all visitors . The specifics of sporting events require the organization of such artificial lighting, which will be as close as possible to daylight diffused light – even at night. Below are a number of functions that lighting performs in indoor sports complexes and facilities:

  • Providing comfortable conditions for training and competition;
  • Reducing the risk of injury to athletes;
  • Creating a favorable environment for spectators and observers;
  • Organization of emergency lighting in case of need for evacuation;
  • Giving the sports facility an aesthetic image;
  • Division of the site into functional zones.

It is necessary to pay special attention to the lighting of sports facilities already at the design and construction stage. Clear norms and rules must be observed not only in the construction of stadiums designed for regional and international competitions, but also in the construction of small gyms and complexes, outdoor training grounds. The space surrounding the sports facility should also be well lit.

There are common European standards for the lighting of sports facilities: DIN EN 12193 “Light and lighting – lighting of sports facilities”. This document distinguishes three groups of sporting events:

.Competitions of the highest category;

.Intermediate level competitions;

.School and amateur competitions.

On the basis of the above set of rules, lighting regulations were established and other significant parameters were considered, which are set depending on the sport and the scale of the competitions. Here are some of these options:

  • Illumination on a horizontal plane . This indicator is the most important, since horizontal surfaces form the main part of the field or area. Horizontal planes are constantly in the field of view of both spectators and players.
  • Illumination on a vertical plane . The vertical planes are the elements of sports facilities, inventory, and even the players themselves. In order to create an optimal field of view for all players and sports equipment, specially designed lighting is required. Illumination of vertical planes also affects the quality of image transmission when filming sports events.
  • Illumination uniformity . Actual for both horizontal and vertical lighting. Even lighting avoids sudden changes in light and shadow, reduces the load on the visual organs. Uneven lighting on the field reduces the visibility of certain areas of the stadium.
  • safety factor . Lamps and luminaires can become dirty, “age”, and their reflective properties will deteriorate over time. Therefore, when designing lighting structures, an increased safety factor will eliminate the possibility of falling lighting levels below normal.
  • Blindness indicator . This is a parameter that allows you to measure the glare effect of lighting installations. Too bright, blinding light reduces visibility just as much as too dim.
  • Ripple factor and stroboscopic effect . With a pulsating, blinking light, it is more difficult for athletes to concentrate. On the audience, an overestimated pulsation coefficient has a tiring and depressing effect. Therefore, the flickering frequency of the luminous flux must be regulated, the pulsation coefficient of the lamps should be as low as possible and not exceed 10%.

The table below shows the electrical, lighting and operational characteristics of lighting structures. These parameters are important to consider when choosing lighting structures for lighting sports facilities.

Parameter

Meaning

Voltage (V)

The mains voltage required to turn on and stable operation of lamps and fixtures.

Power, W)

Electric power consumed by lamps and fixtures.

Luminous flux (lm)

Radiation power of the light source.

Emitting power (lm/W)

Lamp performance, defined as the ratio of luminous flux to electrical power.

Color temperature (K)

The degree of whiteness of the lamp light. Optimum value for lighting sports facilities: 5000-6000 K (white daylight).

Color rendering index (RA)

An indicator of the quality of color reproduction by lamps and fixtures. The maximum value of the index: 100. The lower the color rendering index, the worse the lamp transmits the desired color spectrum.

Service life (h)

The average life of lamps and fixtures in hours.

 

There are now different lighting standards for outdoor and indoor sports facilities. Let’s consider both options.

The purpose of the sports ground

(by sport)

Minimum illumination level in lux (lx)

Illumination rationing zones

For enclosed structures

For open structures

badminton, volleyball, basketball

300

50

Horizontal planes and ground/field surface

100

30

Vertical planes at a height of up to 5 m from the surface of the site / field

Tennis

300

100

Horizontal planes and site surface

100

50

Vertical planes at a height of up to 7 m from the surface of the site

Table tennis

400

150

The horizontal plane of the table surface and a distance of 2 m beyond it (in all directions)

Acrobatics, boxing, all kinds of wrestling, sports and rhythmic gymnastics, weightlifting, fencing

200

30

Horizontal plane of the court/field surface

Athletics

150

Up to 50

Horizontal and vertical planes depending on the type of competition

Football, rugby, field hockey

300

50

Horizontal planes of the field surface

100

30

Vertical planes at a height of up to 15 m

Speed ​​skating and figure skating, bandy

500

50

Horizontal planes of the ice surface

Hockey

500

100

Horizontal planes of the ice surface

Swimming

150

100

Horizontal plane of the water surface

Diving

150

100

Horizontal plane of the water surface

75

50

Vertical plane in the jump zone

Water polo

200

100

Horizontal plane of the water surface

100

50

Vertical plane at a height of up to 2 m

Skiing

30

Horizontal and vertical planes coinciding with the road surface

After taking into account all the technical characteristics and lighting standards, you can proceed to the selection of lighting equipment. The most common types of lighting for sports facilities today are fluorescent, metal halide and LED lamps.

.Linear fluorescent lighting . Such lamps have a straight, U-shaped or annular shape. The main part of the emitted light is released due to the luminescent coating, which is affected by ultraviolet radiation. Fluorescent lamps are 5-10 times longer than conventional incandescent lamps in terms of service life, but they have a relatively low power and sometimes have a rather high ripple factor. At sports facilities, fluorescent lamps with an opening angle of 120 degrees or more are used. Fluorescent lighting must always be protected with shockproof gratings.

.Metal halide lighting . This is a type of high pressure discharge lamps. Such lamps are relatively compact, efficient, and have high power. Now metal halide lamps are widely used, including for lighting sports complexes and facilities. But these lamps have a disadvantage: it will take some time for the spotlights to warm up and obtain the required level of illumination (from 3 to 10 minutes, depending on the size of the lamp). In addition, after turning off the spotlights, it will again take time to cool down (up to 10 minutes). The lamp must not be restarted until it has completely cooled down in order to avoid the failure of such lamps.

.LED lighting . This is the most common type of lighting for sports and any other facilities today. LED lamps fully meet all the requirements and standards for lighting sports facilities. They consume a minimum amount of energy, while giving out a lot of power. LEDs are resistant to power surges, weather conditions, pressure and temperature drops. Such lamps have a high level of luminous flux and do not form a blinding effect. The ripple factor of LED lamps will also be extremely low.

Diffusers can be additionally integrated into the LED lighting structure, which will allow to focus the light flux in certain areas of the sports facility. A nice bonus will be the ability to create decorative lighting and dynamic light shows in the pauses between competitions. Bright, saturated colors will cheer up the audience and make sporting events memorable.

For more information, please contact us.

Website:www.aikoled.com

Email: info@aikoled.com

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